April 20, 2010

What if the Volcano Erupts Forever?


Watching animation of the ash dispersal from the Eyjaffjollajokull volcano is mesmerizing. The chaotic turbulence seems an apt image for the chaos spreading over the world today. The last three times this volcano erupted it triggered a greater eruption by its neighbor Katla. These are synchronized parts of a system. The greater eruption may come within the week.
I wonder if anyone’s trying to generate a similar graphic to depict the turbulence of the bailout; the now zombified, insolvent, yet ever more intense global finance casino, the Tower of Debt Babel becoming more top heavy by the day even as it totters more dynamically.
More and more criminal energy keeps being pumped into the system, accompanied by more and more fear, despair, and rage on the part of the victimized peoples of the planet. Non-linear jumps are inevitable.
This volcano, arising in Iceland of all places, the one place where people are showing any sign at all of being willing to fight back and say No, seems eerily symbolic.
If I were a mystic I’d think it’s no coincidence at all…..
By now we’re so used to the pulse of globalization and its mechanisms like cheap, on-demand air travel that it seems an odd interlude for so many planes to be grounded. (My fellow Naked Capitalism readers are familiar with how Yves Smith has been trapped in England for days now.) It’s especially unfathomable and infuriating that there’s no easy way to cast political blame for a volcano, though some are trying, and of course everyone’s looking for how to turn it into a scam. The system being what it is, the airlines are already whining for a bailout. The response to yet another shot across the bow from the uncanny orb itself is to try to build the Debt Tower higher, add another layer to the pyramid scheme, double down and compound the crime.
The system has literally zero ideas beyond theft by now. The hubris of kleptocracy has become extraordinary. Since the Greek meltdown has transfixed all us  perplexed commentators, we’ve grasped at the imagery and morality tales of Greek mythology. Today the story of Icarus seems apropos. Full of irrational exuberance, Icarus defied his father’s warnings and flew too close to the sun, which melted the wax of his wings and sent him plummeting into the sea.
Today the planes want to fly into the ash. Every flier wants to fly ever higher into what he thinks is the sun of infinite greed and power satiety. As Lloyd Blankfein and others have said, they consider themselves gods. But they are not. They’re louts and thugs who managed to strap on the artificial wings of cheap oil and a phony economy based on a fictive fiat dollar and exponential debt. That sun toward which they fly, into which they want to drag us all, is actually their hell on earth. But it shall be the furnace of their own immolation.
Just as a flight of fancy (though no more fanciful than the flight plan of infinite globalization itself), we can see the volcano as a parable. The flight gods now rescind our wings, which took us too close to the sun.
We face the impending economic and energy descent into the Second Great Depression, this one permanent by our measure of time. If this is to be what most would experience as a new Dark Age, what might be the effect of a physical blast out of Katla? A new, quickly-descending physical, literal Dark Age, including the mass failure of crops and subsequent famine? Yet this would not be a wild card, like the asteroid which mortally wounded the dinosaurs. It would just be an acceleration of everything that’s fated anyway by Peak Oil. The failure of globalization, of industrial agriculture, of consumerism, and the acceleration of every pathology, and of the system’s eventual collapse.
What if the planes were grounded forever? We see how the system’s already pushing back against reality. They’re already saying European transportation ministries overreacted and should lift the restrictions. Everyone was too hysterical about the threat of the ash. That you can fly through it just fine. Let the “free market” do its thing. There go those pointy-headed safety freaks again. All the same arguments which have worked out so well with the finance sector, and at every single other point they were deployed against reason, common sense, and reality.
But just as a thought experiment, what if the planes were grounded forever right now? The reality is that they will eventually be grounded forever, and any grounding today only lessens the finite number of flights left in our future. Man cannot fly forever on renewable energy and biofuels. You can’t have cheap globalized flight without cheap fossil fuels. As the oil depletes and becomes impossible to extract except at prohibitive costs, we’ll face a choice about flight. We can allow “essential” flight to continue. In practice this will mean elites, the rich, and the military get to fly, while the rest of us are permanently grounded. This particular technological stratification will be a stark milestone on the road to our impending enslavement, as we look up in wonder at the alien things in the sky in the same way a South Seas islander once did.
We’re already enshrining our own version of cargo cults, as we keep absurd faith in things like consumerism, what the elites call “capitalism”, the “ownership society”, the monetized version of the “American dream”, even as these have been proven to be Big Lies. So we may even tolerate the dear, slave-extracted oil being used to power luxury jets that hop among fortified elite compounds while we grovel in the mud. So far that’s been our response to things.
Or, we can make the choice, find the resolve, to say the oil, like every other resource, belongs to we the people, and we’re going to take it back to use for the public good. In the unlikely event of such morality and wisdom prevailing, we will indeed ground the planes as a stupid luxury which under corporatism produces almost nothing but generates enormous waste and pathology.
The reality is that the fossil fuel economy will be grounded. Financialization will be grounded. All the volcanoes are rumbling. The only one we’re not sure about is the political volcano. There too, only in Iceland have we felt some slight shaking of the earth.
Meanwhile the whole airline fiasco is being derided as yet another EU failure. Just as they thought they could have their monetary union cake but eat their sovereign fiscal policies too, so it turns out their parochial transportation ministries don’t know how to coordinate responses to things like volcanoes. Following the eruption it took five days for the ministries of the whole gaggle of countries to even get together. After the disparate, nationally based responses to the financial crisis, to the Georgian war, and the feckless pseudo-coping with Greece, this is yet more evidence of the absurdity of “Europe” as an entity and as a concept.
Once again I’m reminded of how the “EU” like every other aspect of globalization and financialization, is in itself a bubble phenomenon. It looks good and functions well only on the upswing, only when things are going well. But the moment things go wrong, having to mark it to market becomes a disaster.
(And with something like a volcano, there’s no craven FASB to cave in and let you cook the books. You fly the plane or you don’t.)
And what about that Greek bailout? After all the tedium and angst of the protracted negotiations toward a bailout, everyone has concluded almost immediately that this bailout won’t work. Greece may still default in 2010, 2011 at the latest. And the wobble in Portugal’s debt tower is becoming more pronouced.
(At Zero Hedge they joked that the Greeks should still sell islands like Santorini. There’s another volcano, which leveled the Minoan civilization at Thera and gave rise to the legend of Atlantis. So where to for today’s Atlantis? It’s the same flagitious pseudo-civilization, the same crime and depravity as in the original legend. Once again we see how symbolic this volcano is.)
One last rumble which some are claiming (or hoping) to detect is that the SEC’s suit against Goldman will open the floodgates of a general offensive against this particular hedge fund, and against the whole compass of the TBTFs. Since Friday several other actions against Goldman have commenced. We’ll see what happens.
My position has long been that on the longer, more ponderous curve, this is the downslope of fossil fuel globalization and the financialized pseudo-economy, and the pseudo-civilization which by now is a diseased vestige. But politically there’s no linear reform curve here. The only linear political curve heads down as well – to neo-feudalism, neo-medievalism, serfdom.
Only a non-linear political break, seizing an opportunity opened up by some stumble along the vaster economic curve, can flip the political trend over to a different strange attractor. The two attractors are fascism or revolution (I take solace in the fact that either way corporate liberals are doomed). By “revolution” I mean the people transforming themselves back into a true constitution the way we once were, when we still lived according to the values of freedom, justice, morality, and community. The great volcano of the age already casts its pall over modern “civilization”, which was really just an oil- and debt-fueled blip. All that must choke and die.
But it’s our choice whether we die with it, or whether we use the surge and winds of our own spiritual volcano to loft us above the ashes of the burning neoliberal world, where we can again soar the currents and breathe the clear, bracing air of our redeemed humanity.
They flew into their false sun of greed, war, destruction, despair. But they and their gaslight sun will now crash to the inexorable earth. Will we fall with them? Or shall we seek the old, and what can again be the new, light? Humanity never had a sunset, only a light blotted by the smog of crime. Our sun can still be rising, if we rise to meet that dawn. It’s a choice of volcanoes.


  1. I like the way you write. Got here through Edwardo on Disaster Porn…
    I agree about peak oil.
    I agree particularly about the airplane culture, as an obnoxious symptom of what is currently wrong with our culture. The lies we are telling ourselves on a big scale.
    The airplane culture cultivates our hubris to the babelistic level you decry. It has imploded our sense of space and time, and destroyed our… rootedness in nature, the physical world, even our bodies…
    That said… there never WAS a time when justice, liberty and freedom triumphed.
    Believing that is believing in the Biblical creation story.
    There is NO paradise lost. There never was one.
    If there is to be paradise (utopia), it will emerge HERE AND NOW, on a day to basis, in our daily lives. It is not in the future either.
    We have lots of inherited prejudices about the so called “dark ages”. They look very dark from a certain perspective, but from another perspective, MAYBE they COULD look less dark ?
    That is not to say that UTOPIA is in the past.
    Every age erects its own ideology by discrediting and attacking the ideology of its fathers and grandfathers.
    To be remembered.

    Comment by Debra — April 20, 2010 @ 4:07 am

    • Hi Debra,

      Nobody’s talking about utopia in the past. But the American Revolution was founded in values of liberty and constitution which have since been squandered.

      We do need to attack the ideology which has prevailed over the last forty years. Although it’s already discredited itself, it still wields great power, and unfortunately most people are prone to bow to power and endorse it even where its fraudulence is manifest.

      The today we have is unfortunately a vacuum of abdication, where it comes to everything above ground level. What we need to do is redeem the long-dormant revolution, revive it and resume its original path.

      America can still achieve its destiny if it chooses.

      Comment by Russ — April 20, 2010 @ 10:32 am

      • American ‘destiny’ is a creature of high school textbooks. The Revolution was founded in values of liberty only for some, and the Constitution was designed to keep the number pitifully small. A corrupt Congress and even more venal State legislatures did the rest, and we had a plutocracy by 1870.

        We had a brief window of democracy which began in 1935, was shuttered by WWII and slammed shut in 1946 behind the smokescreen of the Red Menace. The beginning of the end was Taft Hartley (1947), although it took another 23 years for Europe and Japan to rebuild, during which Americans reaped modest benefits.

        Of course the truly colossal looting required invention of OTC derivatives, particularly credit default swaps. Today’s looters make Vanderbilt, Rockefeller and Morgan look like philanthropists.

        Comment by jake chase — April 20, 2010 @ 10:55 am

      • American ‘destiny’ is a creature of high school textbooks.

        It’s become that. Whether it stays that way is up to us.

        Comment by Russ — April 20, 2010 @ 4:02 pm

  2. I myself have been grounded since 1992 and only flew before then when under duress. I have never understood all this flying around, but then I do not go into bars at night, either.

    Back in 1976 I had a boss who insisted on flying as an alternative to telephoning. My job was to go along. One time, we left Laguardia airport at 6AM and flew in an ice storm to Buffalo for an 8AM meeting. I was so drunk by the time the plane landed I could barely shake hands with our guests, who never noticed that I did not utter a word during a three hour meeting. My boss never noticed either. Those were the days.

    Comment by jake chase — April 20, 2010 @ 8:55 am

    • 1992 was the last time I flew as well, out to Wyoming for a backpacking expedition.

      Comment by Russ — April 20, 2010 @ 10:36 am

      • After the metaphor and heroism of the original post, I can’t help but chuckle at the two previous posts. You fellows haven’t missed a thing. I flew to France last summer and was forced to smell the greasy hair of an unwashed female creature who put her seat into the reclined position one minute after plopping her derriere into the seat in front of me. Couldn’t reach my laptop under the seat—not that the plane was outfitted with WiFi. I hoped against hope that the twerpette would sit up when the slop was passed around, but she just decreased the rake of her upper body, wolfed down the agglomeration, and fell back into her still reclined seat.
        And for Jake, it is almost impossible to get drunk unless you fly first class or order 4 drinks at once: the attendants only make 2 passes in 6 hours. I am going to fill my 3oz mouthwash bottles with Booker’s in the future.

        Comment by Jessica — April 20, 2010 @ 1:01 pm

      • Based on what I read it’s become absolutely unbearable since 2001 (on account of “homeland security”) and even worse since the economic crisis, with the airlines squeezing fliers every way imaginable.

        Comment by Russ — April 20, 2010 @ 3:49 pm

  3. With respect to the following from Russ:

    “This volcano, arising in Iceland of all places, the one place where people are showing any sign at all of being willing to fight back and say No, seems eerily symbolic.

    If I were a mystic I’d think it’s no coincidence at all…..”

    Here’s a link to a site where the proprietor does very, um, esoteric work showing all sorts of interesting linkages between seemingly disparate phenomena.


    If you really want to see the “work” you need to fork over the princely sum of five bucks a month.

    In the meantime, the last time I tried to fly was this morning, but since they couldn’t tell me whether I would land in the UK, France, Spain or some other spot, I opted out.

    Russ, remember a mere weeks ago when we were discussing what would derail the system once and for all? Well, the volcano, i.e. mother nature, may well be taking matters into her own hands.

    Comment by Edwardo — April 20, 2010 @ 11:22 am

    • Yeah, I remember. If Katla blows that could really be a non-linear game changer.

      Thanks for the link. It’s not a coincidence that the painting on the front page is one of Peter Bruegel’s “Tower of Babel” series, and that when I was writing this thing I went to look at his “Fall of Icarus”, to maybe use it in the post. While doing that I also noticed the Babel Towers and said I have to use those one of these days.

      It’s not a coincidence because these were among Bruegel’s themes; all the travails we confront today.

      (I ended up not using the Icarus painting because I thought people who didn’t already know it would miss what it’s showing, given how Icarus is already in the water way down in the corner.)

      Comment by Russ — April 20, 2010 @ 3:52 pm

  4. Volcanoes make for a good metaphor. I also like the meteors that wiped out the dinosaurs. I’m reminded of a comic strip:

    And sometimes in my most nihilistic moments I feel the same way, wishing for some act of God to wipe the slate clean so that something more pure might grow.

    Comment by jimmy james — April 20, 2010 @ 11:58 am

    • Good comic, thanks.

      I know what you mean about the nihilism of despair. I forget who said “Those who make nonviolent change impossible make violent change inevitable.”

      That includes driving people to fugues of nihilism.

      Comment by Russ — April 20, 2010 @ 3:55 pm

  5. It’s funny you speak of founding the ultimate Enlightenment experiment on liberty…
    I live ten miles away from where the French Revolution officially started. It started in… Vizille, France, in the Dauphiné, an area which was traditionally known for political unrest and independance.
    Ten years ago when I visited the Museum of the French Revolution (a must see…), if you walked into the first room you saw tablewear with “Dieu, La Patrie” on it. God and Country.
    In the next room you saw tablewear with… “liberté, justice, fraternité” stamped IN EXACTLY THE SAME PLACE where “God, country” was in the first room.
    Same… tablewear. Identical.
    You conclude.
    Our Enlightenment experiment was founded on… values that the Christian martyrs died for.
    And this Christian faith is one that demands GREAT COURAGE to live.
    Not anything like what you MIGHT think it is, given the many people who are giving it a very bad name.
    Edwardo and I have discussed the revolution problem. Realism obliges me to acknowledge that in a revolution I would be one of the first to get the axe. I am wary of promoting it.
    BUT…. I am NOT wary of promoting… the QUIET revolution that COULD be taking place in our individual hearts and minds, and that just COULD be enough, if we allowed ourselves that greatest of all PRICELESS luxury, faith…

    Comment by Debra — April 20, 2010 @ 12:46 pm

    • It’s good that Christianity does that for you. This, however, isn’t a religious but a secular blog.

      I do agree that almost everyone who calls himself a “Christian” is no such thing in reality, as is proven by unchristian actions.

      (Taking part in commerce or politics are obvious examples.)

      That museum sounds excellent. I’d visit if I were there.

      Comment by Russ — April 20, 2010 @ 4:08 pm

  6. Ah… the good ole secular question…
    If YOU had been in France for 30 years, you would know that in certain circumstances which have been met in this country, secularism is a..religion.
    Unbelievable, eh ?
    As I say on SuddenDebt…
    You throw God out the door, and he comes back in through the window.

    Comment by Debra — April 20, 2010 @ 6:42 pm

    • Yes, once the old religion no longer works and is thrown away the impulse still looks for other ways to satisfy itself.

      With market fundamentalism and “consumerism” we seem to have reached the nadir.

      And now the first of those no longer works, while the second is being quashed by reality itself.

      So now we look to what comes next.

      Comment by Russ — April 21, 2010 @ 2:34 am

    • I was astounded to learn during my vacation in France that the national holidays still include Catholic holydays: the Ascension, the Assumption, All Saints’ Day, and the Monday after Pentecost Sunday are right up there with Bastille Day. Mindboggling. Most U. S. Catholics don’t even remember these holydays.

      Comment by Jessica — April 21, 2010 @ 8:49 am

      • One of the reasons people in the middle ages worked so many fewer hours than people today (the modern era is second only to the 19th century; so much for the lies of technology setting us free for lives of leisure – we know where all that surplus went) was on account of all those holidays. IIRC there were over a hundred of them.

        One of the ways in which they were more civilized than we.

        Comment by Russ — April 21, 2010 @ 9:46 am

  7. please contact me

    Comment by harley — April 20, 2010 @ 7:18 pm

  8. Yep, those holidays in France look pretty good, you guys… thanks to the CATHOLIC country…
    All the Republic’s holidays, and the major church ones too.
    Plus… many of us take off for at least four weeks in the summer (we’re up to..7).
    When my Mama came to visit me, she harped on about France being a THIRD WORLD COUNTRY because I didn’t have a clothes dryer…
    Look at your work week…
    WHO’S a third world country ??
    Work is DEFINITELY not GOD’s greatest gift to man (lol).
    And certainly not under the conditions that many of us are toiling… FOR OUR OWN GOOD, of course…
    I tell my French friends that they need to be suspicious of the zeal of so many neighboring and NOT neighboring countries DETERMINED to puncture and decry social protection in France.
    It USED to be doing fine, until the big employers stopped paying their dues into it.

    Comment by Debra — April 21, 2010 @ 11:35 am

  9. While my comment is sort of off-topic, I thought I would pass along several links to a conference scheduled to occur in Washington DC on April 28. Rather than go into a lengthy description, I will simply provide a conference link for the convenience of those who fret about economic matters which face this country; Dr J Firestone is the organizer:

    Our First Event: A Teach-In Counter-Conference on Fiscal Sustainability:


    Dr Bill Mitchell describes several attributes of the conference on his blog site today:

    The Fiscal Sustainability Teach-In and Counter-Conference


    For any who are aware of the designs of the Pete Peterson group (Blackstone Investor group) on retirement account management, this may be of some interest.

    Comment by William Wilson — April 21, 2010 @ 2:08 pm

    • I’ve read some stuff about this. It’ll be great if it gets some traction.

      Did you know the WaPo buys opinion pieces from the Peterson cabal and palms them off as news articles?

      So we can guess what their coverage of these duelling events will be.

      Comment by Russ — April 21, 2010 @ 3:41 pm

  10. Returning to the metaphoric and heroic—“The two attractors are fascism or revolution (I take solace in the fact that either way corporate liberals are doomed).” A. Could you please explain how corporate liberals are doomed in facsism? I can see how the liberal meets the axe, but the corporatist part escapes me.
    B. I need to understand why you see fascism and revolution as the two alternatives. After reading comments on Baseline and, most recently, the fiscal sustainability website noted in the comment prior to yours, Peterson followers are lamenting the fact that no one to the left of John Podesta is scheduled to appear. I have actually read some of Podesta’s writings and, for me, he is pretty far to the left. He is a statist without doubt. I hate labels…Far left, far right, it is all the same to me. Fascism, socialism, smocialism , they all result in oligarchy and the abrogation of my civil rights and constitutional freedoms.

    Comment by Jessica — April 21, 2010 @ 5:58 pm

    • That’s part of the problem of labels. “Left” has come to be seen as just as statist as “Right”, and it often has been just that.

      So we who seek economic and political decentralization and relocalization (and who recognize that’s coming anyway whether anybody wants it or not) would do best to eschew all the old labels and political spectrumizing.

      As for fascism and revolution, I mean that the system is unsustainable using normal pseudo-democratic methods. As it becomes more and more structurally untenable, for the elites to maintain their wealth and power will require them to become overtly fascistic. And the only options left to the people will be submission to slavery, or revolution. (“Reform” is already impossible as it is; it sure won’t be any more possible then.)

      Or, if somehow the elites are unable to impose fascism, their power will collapse, and power will fall back into the people’s hands by default, and we’ll have spontaneous revolution that way.

      So that’s in a nutshell why I say the only possibilities are fascism and revolution.

      As for the corporate liberals, they’re only useful to the elites so long as they’re trying to maintain power pseudo-democratically (“inverted totalitarianism” in Sheldon Wolin’s term).

      But if the elites go the route of straight fascism, they won’t need their despised liberals anymore, so they’ll get rid of them.

      Comment by Russ — April 22, 2010 @ 4:37 am

  11. It’s all good, but I really like the last 3 paragraphs. They give me hope – it is nice to know others are thinking what I’m thinking.

    I’m ready, Russ. I’m ready to go back to the old ways. I’m not romanticizing them – I know it will be a major adjustment – but I’m tired of living this way. All we do is hurry and ignore each other while worrying about keeping up with the neighbors and their latest big-screen TV.

    Comment by Bloodgroove — April 21, 2010 @ 8:25 pm

    • I don’t know how old you are, Bloodgroove, but it is possible. We raised our 3 children mostly in the mountains of PA, without benefit of cable TV or public education. I never shot squirrel or deer for dinner, but our children had a childhood that was not unlike that of my husband in the 1950’s. (And yes, they were highly socialized in the best way—by assosication with humans of ALL ages and both sexes.) They are 25 years old now and thank us for an idyllic childhood. Even the liberal private colleges of Boston did not distort their understanding of freedom, justice, and morality.

      Comment by Jessica — April 21, 2010 @ 8:49 pm

      • Sounds like we’re about the same age, Jessica. Thanks for the thoughts. I’m pretty much independent, but I do still hold down a nine-to-five job. I’d tell ya more about me and my skills, but it would just come off weird here on a blog. Thanks again – nice to hear from you.

        Comment by Bloodgroove — April 21, 2010 @ 8:54 pm

    • You got that right.

      I don’t romanticize the old ways either. Physically it’s a lot harder than if one has money today.

      On the other hand nobody ever romanticized anything more than the flacks of modernity and “progress” romanticize the derangement of “growth” and consumerism, when those things have mostly produced enervation, psychological derangement, and spiritual sickness, far outweighing the material benefits they conferred.

      (By material benefit I mean something like improved medical technology. Basic stuff.

      The consumer rat race to keep buying bigger-screen TVs, on the other hand, is no benefit but part of the sickness.

      We know that beyond a basic level of improvement, material intensification doesn’t make people happy, but only increases stress and dissatisfaction.)

      It’s a real shame. Humanity had the wherewithal to decently improve material life, and from there use the surplus to enjoy life. To provide prosperity, leisure, security, and community for all.

      Instead, because of the gangster mentality, and the sheep “consumer” mentality people were brainwashed into, convincing them to throw away their birthrights of citizenship and freedom, it was all thrown down a rathole. Mankind missed its chance forever.

      Now we still have the choice of freedom or slavery, but even the most prosperous freedom will exist only under greatly diminished material conditions.

      Needless to say, no matter how rough it’ll be, it’ll be infinitely better, spiritually and materially, than a restored medieval serfdom, which is what this system intends for us.

      Comment by Russ — April 22, 2010 @ 4:57 am

      • “Needless to say, no matter how rough it’ll be, it’ll be infinitely better, spiritually and materially, than a restored medieval serfdom, which is what this system intends for us.”

        Sometimes you say the best stuff!

        Comment by Bloodgroove — April 23, 2010 @ 6:08 am

  12. Jessica, I’m the same age too, roughly.
    I moved to France to set the clock back twenty years, which was a relatively good idea, in my book.
    Our kids grew up without TV, and probably have the same kind of upbringing as yours, even though we didn’t manage to escape the (French) public school system.
    I would say that living without TV is really one of the most important differences that exist between my family and others in our social sphere.
    To a certain extent, the TV has replaced the, uh.. REPUBLIC as a creator of the (lowest) common denominator that brings us together…

    Comment by Debra — April 22, 2010 @ 3:54 am

    • Getting rid of the TV was one of the best improvements in my quality of life I ever undertook.

      I recommend it to anybody.

      Comment by Russ — April 22, 2010 @ 5:01 am

  13. There is hope to “loft us above the ashes” or at least move us around and between the volcanic ash clouds. Go Alaska Airlines!


    Comment by Jessica — April 22, 2010 @ 9:26 am

  14. […] And providing eschatological backdrop as well as threatening economic devastation itself, we have the eruption of Iceland. Can any of these really provide the non-linear break? We’ll rightly keep doubting until the […]

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  15. […] amok is currently injecting poison into our ocean at an unfathomable rate. It looks like my post which I whimsically named after a volcano erupting forever was more prescient more quickly than I thought. I just mistook which volcano it would be (though […]

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